Slavery, the President's House at Independence National Historical Park, and Public MemoryRoger C. Aden
The 2002 revelation at Philadelphia’s Independence National Historical Park that George Washington kept slaves in his executive mansion in the 1790s prompted an eight-year controversy about the role of slavery in America's commemorative landscape. When the President's House installation opened in 2010, it became the first federal property to feature a slave memorial.
In Upon the Ruins of Liberty, Roger Aden offers a compelling account that explores the development of this important historic site and the intersection of contemporary racial politics with history, space, and public memory. Aden constructs this engrossing tale by drawing on archival material and interviews with principal figures in the controversy—including historian Ed Lawler, site activist Michael Coard, and site designer Emanuel Kelly
Upon the Ruins of Liberty chronicles the politically charged efforts to create a fitting tribute to the place where George Washington (and later John Adams) shaped the presidency as he denied freedom to the nine enslaved Africans in his household. From design to execution, the plans prompted advocates to embrace stories informed by race and address such difficulties as how to handle the results of the site excavation. Consequently, this landmark project raised concerns and provided lessons about the role of public memory in shaping the nation's identity.
"Upon the Ruins of Liberty is an eye-opening book that tells the untold story of President George Washington’s house and the slaves he kept there. Well-written, illuminating, and provocative, it will cause us to reconsider the history we’ve all been taught—this is a work of importance."
—Elijah Anderson, Yale University, author of The Cosmopolitan Canopy and Code of the Street
"With Upon the Ruins of Liberty, Roger Aden has given us a stirring account of the eight-year struggle to memorialize the President’s House, the executive mansion at Independence National Historical Park that served our first and second presidents and their families when Philadelphia was the nation’s capital. In exploring the multi-sided controversy about whose history should be told—and how to tell it—Aden invites readers to think about how Americans argue, protest, and search for compromise when plans are launched to reconstruct the past in public places. Out of this knotted controversy came the first slave memorial on a federal site, along with the sobering message that freedom and slavery were closely entwined as the new nation took form. If this muddles the schoolbook celebration of Washington ushering in a republic of liberty, it affirms the complicated, if unruly, process that today's democracy demands in doing public history."
—Gary B. Nash, Director of the National Center for History in the Schools, UCLA, and author of The Liberty Bell
"This book will attract scholars of preservation, social history, material culture, and architectural history, as well as general readers. The author teaches communication studies and put his knowledge of that subject to good use as he analyzed one of the most controversial commemorative projects of our time: the ruins of the President's House at Philadelphia's Independence National Historical Park (INHP).... Communicating history to the public is an important, often-difficult challenge for historians and preservationists—made no easier when contemporary racial politics are part of that history. The story of the President's House demonstrates that attempts to build public memory and to create an inclusive national narrative tell Americans as much about who they are now as it tells them about who they were then—and what they might become."
—The Journal of American History
"Upon the Ruins of Liberty is a valuable addition to the scholarship on the history of slaveholding in the early republic and offers readers a linguistic perspective that will be useful to those interested in a nuanced analysis of the different ways in which people communicate about what sites of collective memory represent and how these sites should be interpreted."
—The Public Historian
"Aden seeks to use the (President's House) memorial as a lens for viewing the nation’s collective memory in publicly recognized spaces and places of memorialization. He draws on extensive archival material, interviews with many of those involved in the controversy, popular media accounts, and aspects of critical theory in his analysis. It is a complex story, and Aden documents it meticulously. It is also a story of vital interest to a wide range of scholars and students in history, cultural studies, public history and preservation, interpretation, education, and beyond." —Journal of American History