Environmental Ethics and Forestry

A Reader

Edited by Peter C. List
Book Cover

PB: $43.95
EAN: 978-1-56639-785-8
Publication: Sep 00

HC: $100.50
EAN: 978-1-56639-784-1
Publication: Sep 00

416 pages
7 x 10
2 figures

An exploration of the philosophical nature of ecology


During the past twenty-five years, North American forestry has received increasingly vigorous scrutiny. Critics including the environmentalists, environmental scientists, representatives of public interest groups, and many individual citizens have expressed concerns about forestry's basic assumptions and methods, as well as its practical outcomes. Criticism has centered on such issues as the exploitation of forests for timber production, the reduction and fragmentation of old-growth habitats, the destruction of biodiversity, the degradation of grasslands through grazing practices, lack of government attention to recreation facilities, silvicultural methods like clearcutting and the use of herbicides and pesticides, the exportation of industrial forestry techniques to other parts of the world, and the use of public monies to provide services for private resouce companies, as in the creation of logging roads.

This rising tide of public scrutiny has led many foresters to suspect that their "contract" with society to manage forests using their best professional judgment had been undermined. Some of these professionals, as well as some of their critics, have begun to reexamine their old beliefs and to look for new ways of practicing forestry. Part of this reflective process has entailed new directions in environmental ethics and environmental philosophy.

This reader brings together some of the new thinking in this area. Here students of the applied environmental and natural resource sciences, as well as the interested general reader, will discover a rich sampling of writings in environmental ethics and philosophy as they apply to forestry. Readings focus on basic ethical systems in forestry and forest management, philosophical issues in forestry ethics, codes of ethics in forestry and related natural resource sciences such as fisheries science and wildlife biology, Aldo Leopold's land ethic in forestry, ethical advocacy and whistleblowing in government resource agencies, the ethics of new forestry, ecoforestry, and public debate in forestry, as well as ethical issues in global forestry such as the responsibilities of forest corporations, environmentalists, and individual wood consumers.

This volume contains materials from the founders of forestry ethics, such as Bernhard Fernow, Giford Pinchot, John Muir, and Aldo Leopold; from such organizations as the Society of American Foresters, the Wildlife Society, the American Fisheries Society, Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics, and the Ecoforesters group, in addition to writings by a variety of well-known environmental philosophers and foresters, including Holmes Rolston, Robin Attfield, Lawrence Johnson, Michael McDonald, Paul Wood, James E. Coufal, Raymond Craig, Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Jeff DeBonis, Jim L. Bowyer, Alasdair Gunn, Goug Gaigle, Alan G. McQuillan, Stephanie Kaza, Alan Dregson, Duncan Taylor, and Kathleen Dean Moore.


"...the articles in this reader create a rich foundation for discussion and for questioning the way we use and manage natural resources." Journal of Environmental Education

Table of Contents

Preface Acknowledgments General Introduction

Part I: Ethical Systems in Forestry THE ECONOMIC RESOURCE MODEL OF FORESTS AND FORESTRY 1. Forest and Forestry Defined – Bernhard Fernow 2. Principles of Conservation – Gifford Pinchot 3. The Use of the National Forests – Gifford Pinchot JOHN MUIR ON THE PRESERVATION OF THE WILD FORESTS OF THE WEST 4. The American Forests – John Muir ALDO LEOPOLD'S LAND ETHIC IN FORESTRY 5. The Land Ethic – Aldo Leopold

Part II: Two Philosophical Issues in Forestry Ethics MULTIPLE VALUES IN FORESTS 6. Values Deep in the Woods – Holmes Rolston III 7. Aesthetic Experience in Forests – Holmes Rolston III THE RIGHTS OF TREES AND OTHER NATURAL OBJECTS 8. The Good of Trees – Robin Attfield 9. Holistic Entities—Species – Lawrence E. Johnson 10. Ecointerests and Forest Fires – Lawrence E. Johnson

Part III: Contemporary Forestry Ethics BASIC PRINCIPLES IN FORESTRY ETHICS 11. First Principles for Professional Foresters – Michael McDonald 12. "The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number": Is This a Good Land-Use Ethic – Paul M. Wood 13. Environmental Ethics: Cogitations and Ruminations of a Forester – James E. Coufal 14. The Ecoforestry Declaration of Interdependence CODES OF ETHICS IN FORESTRY, FISHERIES, AND WILDLIFE BIOLOGY 15. Code of Ethics for Members of the Society of American Foresters 16. Code of Ethics and Standards for Professional Conduct for Wildlife Biologists, The Wildlife Society 17. Code of Practices, American Fisheries Society 18. Code of Ethics, Oregon Chapter, American Fisheries Society 19. A Code of Ethics for Government Service 20. The Ecoforester's Way ADOPTING A LAND ETHIC IN THE SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORESTERS 21. The Land Ethic Question – James E. Coufal 22. Land Ethic Canon Recommended by Committee – Norwin E. Linnartz, Raymond S. Craig, and M. B. Dickerman 23. A Forest Ethic and Multivalue Forest Management: The Integrity of Forests and of Foresters Are Bound Together – Holmes Rolston III and James Coufal 24. Further Development for a Land Ethic Canon – Raymond S. Craig 25. Land Ethic Canon Proposal: A Report from the Task Force – Raymond S. Craig ADVOCATING NEW ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS IN PUBLIC NATURAL RESOURCE AGENCIES 26. Ethics and Environmental Advocacy – Kristin Shrader-Frechette 27. Inner Voice 28. AFSEEE Vision: Strategy for Forest Service Reform 29. Speaking Out: A Letter to the Chief of the U.S. Forest Service – Jeff DeBonis 30. Chief Robertson Responds – F. Dale Robertson 31. On Speaking Out: Fighting for Resource Ethics in the BLM 32. Whistleblower Spills Beans on North Kaibab 33. A Combat Biologist Calls It Quits: An Interview with Al Espinosa 34. Tongass Employees Speak Out 35. Enough Is Enough! A Tongass Timber Beast Puts His Foot Down – Cheri Brooks ETHICAL ISSUES IN GLOBAL FORESTRY 36. Responsible Environmentalism: The Ethical Features of Forest Harvest and Wood Use on a Global Scale – James L. Bowyer 37. Environmental Ethics and Tropical Rain Forests: Should Greens Have Standing? – Alastair S. Gunn 38. Globalization of the Timber Trade – Doug Diagle NEW FORESTRY, NEW FOREST PHILOSOPHIES 39. Cabbages and Kings: The Ethics and Aesthetics of New Forestry – Alan G. McQuillan 40. Ethical Tensions in the Northern Forest – Stephanie Kaza 41. An Overview of Ecoforestry: Introduction – Alan Drengson and Duncan Taylor EPILOGUE Traveling the Logging Road, Coast Range – Kathleen Dean Moore Selected Bibliography Index

About the Author(s)

Peter List is Professor of Philosophy at Oregon State University, where he teaches courses on environmental ethics, ethical issues in the natural resource sciences, and sustainable forestry. He is the author of articles on Aldo Leopold's land ethic, and co-author of several articles on public attitudes about federal forests and forest management, published in the Journal of Forestry and Society and Natural Resources.


In the Series