Atheism

A Philosophical Justification

Michael Martin
Book Cover

PB: $44.95
EAN: 978-0-87722-943-8
Publication: Jan 92

HC: $44.95
EAN: 978-0-87722-642-0
Publication: Nov 89

254 pages
6 x 9

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
The Scope of Nonbelief • A Brief Defense of Atheism Against Some Common Criticisms • Purpose

Part I: Negative Atheism
1. The Justification of Negative Atheism: Some Preliminaries
A Presumption of Atheism • The Ethics of Belief • The Evil Demon and Objectivist Epistemology • Conclusion
2. The Meaningfulness of Religious Language
Overview of the Problem • Incoherence and Meaninglessness • Nielsen’s Critique of God Talk • Swinburne's Defense • The Choice of an Observational Language • Attempts to Show the Confirmability of Theological Statements • Conclusion
3. The Ontological Argument
Anselm's Ontological Argument • Malcolm’s Ontological Argument • Hartshorne’s Ontological Argument • Kordig’s Ontological Argument • Plantinga’s Ontological Argument • Conclusion
4. The Cosmological Argument
Traditional Deductive Cosmological Arguments • Three Contemporary Defenses of the Cosmological Argument • General Conclusion
5. The Teleological Argument
Background lo the Teleological Argument • Tennant 's Cosmic Teleology • Schlesinger’s Teleological Argument • Swinburne’s Teleological Argument • Taylor’s Teleological Argument • General Conclusion
6. The Argument from Religious Experience
Religious Experience Defined • Types of Religious Experience • Mystical Experience • Swinburne’s Principle of Credulity and Religious Experience • Conclusion
7. The Argument from Miracles
The Argument in General • The Concept of Miracles • The Probability That God Exists, Given the Existence of Miracles • Naturalism versus Supernaturalism and the Existence of Miracles • The Difficulty of Showing the Existence of Miracles • Evidence of Miracles in One Religion as Evidence Against Contrary Religions • Miracles at Lourdes • Indirect Miracles • Conclusion
8. Some Minor Evidential Arguments for God
The Argument from Common Consent • The Moral Argument • The Argument from Reward • The Argument from Justice • Arguments from Scripture • The Argument from Consciousness • The Argument from Providence • The Argument from Cumulative Evidence
9. Beneficial Arguments for God
Pascal’s Argument • William James and the Will to Believe • Conclusion
10. Faith and Foundationalism
A Traditional Concept of Religious Faith • Existential Faith • Wittgensteinian Fideism • Are Avowals of Religious Faith True or False? • Could an Atheist Have Faith in God? • Religious Beliefs and Basic Beliefs • Conclusion

Part II: Positive Atheism
11. The Justification of Positive Atheism: Some Preliminaries
The Justification of Negative Atheism as a Justification for Positive Atheism • The Strength of the Case Needed for A Posteriori Arguments • The A Priori Arguments and the Possibility of Rebuttal
12. Divine Attributes and Incoherence
Omniscience • Divine Freedom • Omnipotence • Conclusion
13. Atheistic Teleological Arguments
Salmon 's Argument • Expansion of the Argument • The Universe as a Created Object • Conclusion
14. The Argument from Evil
A Direct Inductive Argument from Evil • An Indirect Inductive Argument from Evil • Criticisms of a Probabilistic Argument from Evil • Conclusion
15. The Free Will Defense
Background • The Justification in General • The Assumption of the Importance of Freedom • Free Will und Contracausal Freedom • Contracausal Freedom and Statistical Laws • Compatibilism and World Preference • Free Will and Evil • Possible Worlds and God's Ignorance • The Responsibility of God • Is the Free Will Defense Relevant to the Problem of Moral Evil? • Conclusion
16. Natural Evil
Three Contemporary Attempts to Solve the Problem of Natural Evil • Conclusion
17. Soul Making Theodicy
Some General Problems with the Soul Making Defense • Hick’s Soul Making Theodicy Explained • Hick’s Soul Making Theodicy Evaluated
18. Some Minor Theodicies
The Finite God Theodicy • The Best of All Possible Worlds Theodicy • The Original Sin Theodicy • The Ultimate Harmony Theodicy • The Degree of Desirability of a Conscious State Theodicy • The Reincarnation Theodicy • The Contrast Theodicy • The Warning Theodicy • Conclusion
Conclusion
Appendix: Atheism Defined and Contrasted
Atheism Defined • Atheism Distinguished and Contrasted • Conclusion
Notes
Index

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